Ingredient Substitutions
Baking Ingredient Substitution Chart

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Substituting one ingredient for another should only be done when you don’t have the necessary ingredient on hand in your kitchen. Substitutions can change the flavor and outcome of the finished baked goods.

The following chart gives substitutions that may be used to achieve a product similar to the original when cooking. Find out what to substitute when you're out of an ingredient - but also remember the following when substituting:

When substituting ingredients, take into account the differences in taste, moisture content, texture and weight.

When substituting for sugar and flour, consider the differences in sweetening and thickening power.

Understand the physical and chemical properties of all ingredients.

Measuring accurately will help avoid disappointment.

 


A

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Alcohol Substitutions

 


see Alcohol Substitutions In Cooking
 

Almond paste

1 1/3 cups

1 3/4 cups ground blanched almonds plus 1 1/2 cups powdered sugar plus 1 egg white plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
 

Allspice

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
 

Anchovies

1 fillet

1/2 teaspoon anchovy paste
 

Anise Seed

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon star anise

1 teaspoon cardamom
 

Anise Extract

1 teaspoon

1 1/2 teaspoon ground anise seed

1/2 teaspoon anise powder
 

Apple pie spice

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, and either 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom, ginger or cloves
 

Arrowroot starch

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon cornstarch

2 tablespoons flour (to thicken)

2 1/4 teaspoons of either potato starch or rice starch
 


B

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Baking dish and pan sizes

 


see
Baking Dish and Pan Sizes - How to substitute different pans sizes
 

Baking powder, double acting

Rule:  1 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour

 

1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

1/3 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tarter

1/3 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk, buttermilk, or yogurt (decrease liquid amount called for in recipe by 1/2 cup)

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid amount called for in recipe by 1/2 cup)

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid amount in recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)

1 1/2 teaspoons phosphate or tartate baking powder

1 1/2 teaspoons single-action baking powder
 

Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)

Rule:  1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour
 

1 teaspoon

You need to use 2 to 3 times more double-acting baking powder than baking soda. Replace acidic liquid ingredient in recipe with non-acidic liquid.

3/4 teaspoon Ammonium bicarbonate

 

Bay leaf

1 whole

1/4 teaspoon crushed bay leaves
 

Beau Monde seasoning

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon seasoning salt

1/2 teaspoon table salt plus dash of garlic salt, onion salt, and celery salt

1/2 teaspoon Mei Yen seasoning

see Beau Monde Seasoning Salt recipe
 

Beer

1 cup

1 cup water, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or apricot syrups. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
 

Brandy

1/4 cup

1 tsp brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make 1/4 cup

Water, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or apricot syrups. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
 

Bread Crumbs, dry

1 cup

1 cup crushed cracker crumbs

1 cup matzo meal

1 cup crushed cornflakes

1 cup ground oats

1 cup crushed potato chips
 

Bread Crumbs, Soft

3/4 cup

1 slice soft or fresh bread
 

Broth, beef or chicken

1 cup

1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

1 cup boiling water

1 teaspoon powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
 

Butter

Rule: Don't use spreads or low-fat butter in baking

1 cup

7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat (shortening) and 1/2 teaspoon salt

7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

1 cup margarine

7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

7/8 cup oil

To reduce fat and calories - applesauce or prune puree for half of the butter in the recipe
 

Buttermilk (sour milk)

1 cup

1 cup milk plus 1 tablespoons vinegar (white or cider) or lemon juice (let stand 5 minutes before using)

1 cup milk plus 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar

1 cup mild-flavored soy milk, plus 1 tablespoons vinegar (white or cider) or lemon juice (let stand 5 minutes before using)

1 cup plain or low fat yogurt

1 cup sour cream

1 cup water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder

 


C

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Cajun Spice


1 tablespoon


1/2 teaspoon white pepper, 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder, 1/2 teaspoon onion powder, 1/2 teaspoon ground red pepper, 1/2 teaspoon paprika, and 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
 

Cake Flour

1 cup

1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
 

Can sizes and equivalents

 

see Can Sizes and Equivalents
 

Cardamon, ground

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon ground anise
 

Catsup

1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar, and 2 tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking)
 

Chervil, fresh

1 tablespoon chopped

1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
 

Chicken stock base, instant

1 teaspoon

1 chicken bouillon cube
 

Chicken stock base, instant

1 tbsp dissolved in 1 cup water

1 cup canned chicken broth

1 cup homemade chicken broth or chicken stock
 

Chili sauce

1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice
 

Chives, finely chopped

2 teaspoons

2 teaspoons finely chopped green onion tops
 

Chocolate chips, semi-sweet
Also check out
Chocolate Substitution Chart

1 ounce

1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar
 

Chocolate chips, semi-sweet chips, melted

6-ounce package

2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 2 tablespoons shortening, and 1/2 cup sugar
 

Chocolate, semi-sweet

1 2/3 ounces

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate and 4 teaspoon sugar
 

Chocolate, unsweetened

1 square or 1 ounce

3 tablespoons cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine

3 tablespoon carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water
 

Chocolate, white

1 ounce

1 ounce milk chocolate

1 ounce sweet dark chocolate
 

Cocoa powder, natural unsweetened

3 tablespoons

1 ounce (square) chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 tablespoon)

3 tablespoon Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar

3 tablespoons carob powder
 

Cocoa, Dutch Processed

3 tablespoons

3 tablespoons natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)

3 tablespoons carob powder
 

Coconut

1 tablespoon grated, dry

1 1/2 tablespoons fresh grated coconut
 

Coconut cream, canned

1 cup

1 cup heavy cream or whipping cream
 

Coconut milk, canned

1 cup

1 cup whole milk
 

Coffee, strong brewed

1/4 cup

2 tablespoons instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water
 

Condensed cream of mushroom soup

1 (10.75-ounce can)

1 (10.75 ounce can) condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, or golden mushroom soup.
 

Cornmeal, self-rising

1 cup

7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tablespoons baking powder, and 1/2 teaspoon salt
 

Cornmeal, stone ground

1 cup

1 cup regular milled cornmeal, corn grits, polenta, or maize meal
 

Corn syrup

1 cup

1 cup granulated sugar and 1/4 liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe)

1 cup honey

1 cup light corn syrup

3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup molasses

1 cup maple-flavored syrup
 

Cornstarch (for thickening)

1 tablespoon

2 tablespoon all-purpose flour

2 tablespoon granulated tapioca

1 tablespoon potato or rice starch

1 tablespoon arrowroot

4 teaspoon. instant tapioca
 

Cottage cheese

1 cup

1 cup farmer's cheese

1 cup ricotta cheese
 

Cracker crumbs

1 cup

1 cup dry bread crumbs

1 cup ground oats

1 cup matzo meal
 

Cream, half-and-half

1 cup

1/2 cup whole milk, plus 1/2 cup light cream

7/8 cup milk and 1/2 tablespoon butter or margarine

1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted

3 tablespoons oil plus enough milk to equal 1 cup

1/2 cup coffee cream plus 1/2 cup milk
 

Cream, heavy (36 to 40% fat)

1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil

1 cup evaporated skim milk

equal parts of part skim milk ricotta cheese and nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth (this mixture cannot be heated because of separation)
 

Cream, light (18 to 20% fat)

1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 3 tablespoons butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted
 

Cream, whipped

any amount

Chill a 13 ounce can of evaporated milk for 12 hours. Add 1 tablespoon lemon juice. Whip until stiff.

Beating until stiff, 1/2 cup ice-cold water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Slowly add 1/2 cup sugar while beating. Add 2 tablespoons lemon juice (for cooking only)

1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed
 

Cream cheese

1 cup

1 cup pureed cottage cheese

1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth
 

Cream of tartar

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar
 

Creme fraiche

1 cup

Combine 1 cup heavy cream and 1 tablespoon plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature

1 cup sour cream

1/2 cup sour cream plus 1/2 cup heavy cream

1 cup mascarpone cheese
 

Currants

1 cup

1 cup raisins

1 cup chopped dates

1 cup other dried fruit (cranberries, blueberries, cherries)
 


D

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Dill plant, fresh or dried


3 heads


1 tablespoons dill seed
 


E

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Egg


1 whole (3 tablespoons or 1.7 ounce)


3 tablespoons and 1 teaspoon thawed frozen egg

2 1/2 tablespoons sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tablespoons warm water

2 yolks and 1 tablespoon water (in cookies)

2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixtures)

1/2 teaspoon baking powder, 1 tablespoon vinegar, and 1 tablespoon liquid (in baking)

1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 tablespoon cornstarch in baking

Soften 1 tablespoon unflavored gelatin in 3 tablespoons cold water; add 3 teaspoons boiling water; cool and beat until frothy; add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 tablespoons)

1/4 cup commercial egg substitute
 

Egg white

1 white (2 tablespoons)

2 tablespoons thawed frozen egg white

2 teaspoons sifted, dry egg white powder plus 2 tablespoons lukewarm water
 

Egg yolk

1 yolk (1 1/2 tablespoons)

2 tablespoons sifted, dry egg yolk powder and 2 teaspoons water

1 1/3 tablespoons thawed frozen egg yolk
 

Extracts (such ash lemon or peppermint)

1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon of oil of similar flavor

2 drops oil of similar flavor
 


F

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Fish sauce


1 teaspoon


1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

1 teaspoon light soy sauce with salt
 

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening)

1 tablespoon

1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch

1 tablespoon granular tapioca

1 tablespoon waxy rice flour

1 tablespoon waxy corn flour

2 tablespoons browned flour

1 1/2 teaspoon whole wheat flour and 1/2 teaspoon all purpose flour
 

Flour, all-purpose

Note: Specialty flours added to yeast bread recipes will result in a reduced volume and heavier product.

1 cup sifted

1 cup and 2 tablespoons cake flour

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons unsifted all-purpose flour

1 1/2 cup bread crumbs

1 cup rolled oats

1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, rye flour or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour

1 cup rye or rice flour

1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour
 

Flour, cake

1 cup sifted

1 cup sifted all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour
 

Flour, self-rising

1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour plus 1/1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt
 

Flour, whole wheat

any amount

Substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of the white flour called for in a recipe
 


G

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Garlic


1 clove, small


1/8 teaspoon garlic powder

1/4 teaspoon instant minced garlic

1/2 teaspoon granulated garlic

1/2 to 1 teaspoon garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe)
 

Garlic Salt

3/4 teaspoon

1 medium-size clove or 1/2 teaspoon minced fresh garlic
 

Gelatin, powdered (plain or unflavored)

1 envelope (1/4 ounce), 1 tablespoon granulated

2 teaspoons agar agar

4 sheets gelatin
 

Gelatin, leaf or sheet

4 leaves or sheets

1 (1/4 ounce) envelope powdered gelatin
 

Gelatin, flavored

3-ounce package

1 tablespoon plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice
 

Ghee

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon butter

1 tablespoon vegetable oil
 

Ginger root, fresh

1 teaspoon freshly grated

1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

1 tablespoon candied ginger, rinsed and finely chopped
 

Green onions, fresh

1/2 cup chopped

1/2 cup chopped onion

1/2 cup chopped leek

1/2 cup chopped shallots
 


H

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Herbs, fresh


1 tablespoon finely cut


1 teaspoon dried ground herbs

1 teaspoon dried crumbled herbs
 

Herring

8 ounces

8 ounces sardines
 

Honey

1 cup

1 1/4 cup granulated sugar and 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe)

1 cup light molasses, light or dark corn syrup, light treacle syrup, or maple syrup
 

Horseradish

1 tablespoon fresh

2 tablespoons bottled
 

Hot pepper sauce

1 teaspoon

3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper plus 1 teaspoon vinegar
 


I
 

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Italian Seasoning

 


Combine 1 teaspoon basil, 1 tablespoon fresh or dried parsley, and 1/2 teaspoon oregano
 


L

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Lemon juice, freshly squeezed


1 tablespoon juice


1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice

1 tablespoon fresh lime juice
 

Lemon, whole

1 medium

2 tablespoons lemon juice and 2 to 3 teaspoons lemon rind (zest)
 

Lemon peel, dried

1 teaspoon

1 to 2 teaspoons grated fresh lemon peel (zest)

grated peel of 1 medium lemon

1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
 

Lemon zest (peel)

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

2 tablespoon lemon juice

1 teaspoon lime zest
 

Lemon grass

 

Equal amount of grated lemon zest moistened with a bit of fresh lemon juice
 

Lime juice, freshly squeezed

1 tablespoon juice

 

1 tablespoon bottled lime juice

1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
 

Lime zest (peel)

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon grated fresh lemon peel (zest)
 


M

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Macaroni, (4 cups cooked)


2 cups uncooked


2 cups spaghetti, uncooked

4 cups noodles, uncooked
 

Maple sugar

1/2 cup

1 cup maple syrup (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup)

3/4 cup granulated white sugar plus 1 teaspoon pure maple extract

1 cup granulated white sugar
 

Maple Syrup

about 2 cups

Combine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 teaspoon maple flavoring

1 cup honey
 

Marshmallows, miniature

1 cup

8 to 10 large marshmallows
 

Marshmallow crème

1 jar

melt 16 ounces of marshmallows and 3 1/2 tablespoons corn syrup in a double broiler
 

Mascarpone cheese

1 cup

1 cup creme fraiche

1 cup sour cream
 

Mayonnaise (for use in salads and salad dressings

1 cup

1/2 cup yogurt and 1/2 cup mayonnaise

1 cup either yogurt, salad dressing, or sour cream

1 cup cottage cheese pureed in blender
 

Me Yen seasoning

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon Beau Monde seasoning

1/2 teaspoon table salt
 

Milk, evaporated (whole or skim)

1 cup plus

1 cup liquid whole milk

1 cup regular cream, whipping, or heavy cream
 

Milk, skim

1 cup

4 to 5 tablespoons non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make one cup, or follow manufacturer's directions
 

Milk, skim

1/4 cup

4 teaspoons non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1/4 cup, or follow manufacturer's directions

2 tablespoons evaporated skim milk and 2 tablespoons water
 

Milk, sweetened condensed

1 can (about 1 1/3 cups)

Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 cup and 2 tablespoons evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, 3 tablespoons butter or margarine
 

Milk, whole

1 cup

1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk and 2 tsp butter or margarine

1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water

1/2 cup condensed milk plus 1/2 cup water

4 tablespoons whole dry milk and 1 cup water, or follow manufacturer's directions

1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)

1/4 cup non-fat dry milk and 2 tsp butter or margarine and 7/8 cup water

1 cup soy or almond milk

1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking

1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder in recipe by 2 tsp)
 

Mint leaves, fresh chopped

1/4 cup

1 tablespoon dried mint leaves
 

Molasses

1 cup

1 cup honey, dark corn syrup, maple syrup, brown rice syrup, or barley malt syrup

3/4 cup sugar, increase liquid by 5 tablespoons, decrease baking soda by 1/2 teaspoon, and add 2 teaspoons baking powder to recipe
 

Mushrooms, fresh

1 pound 

3 ounces dried mushrooms plus 1 1/2 cups water

1 (10-ounce) can
 

Mustard, dry

1 teaspoon

1 tablespoon prepared mustard

1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds
 

Mustard, Dijon

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon dry mustard mixed with 1 teaspoon water, 1 teaspoon white wine vinegar, 1 tablespoon mayonnaise, and a pinch of sugar
 


N

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Nuts, chopped, ground or whole


1 cup


1 cup similar nuts (your favorite) prepared in the same way

1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products)
 


O

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 

Oil (for sauteing)

1/4 cup

1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening, or lard
 

Old Bay Seasoning

 

see Old Bay Seasoning Recipe
 

Onion, fresh

1 small

rehydrate 1 tbsp instant minced onion
 

Onion

1 small

1/4 cup chopped, fresh green onions

1 1/3 teaspoons onion salt

1 to 2 tablespoons instant minced onion

1 teaspoon onion powder

2 tablespoons dried minced onion
 

Orange, whole

1 medium

6 to 8 tablespoons juice and 2 to 3 tablespoon grated rind (zest)
 

Orange juice, freshly squeezed

1 cup

1 cup reconstituted frozen orange concentrate

1 cup other citrus juice (of your choice)
 

Orange peel (zest), fresh

1 medium

2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange peel (zest)

1 teaspoon lemon juice

1/2 teaspoon orange extract
 


P

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Parmesan cheese, grated


1/2 cup


1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese or grated Romano cheese
 

Parsley, fresh

1 teaspoon chopped

1 teaspoon dried parsley

1 tablespoon chopped fresh chervil
 

Peanut Butter

1 cup

1 cup of another nut butter (such as almond or hazelnut butter)

1 cup tahini (sesame paste)
 

Pepper, white

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon black pepper
 

Peppers, green bell

1 tablespoon dried

3 tablespoons fresh green pepper, chopped
 

Peppers, red bell

1 tablespoon dried

3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped

2 tablespoons chopped pimento
 

Peppermint, dried

1 tablespoon

1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
 

Pimento

2 tablespoons, chopped

rehydrate 1 tablespoon dried red bell peppers

3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped
 

Polenta, dry

1 cup

1 cup cornmeal

1 cup maize meal

1 cup corn grits
 

Poultry seasoning

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon ground sage, 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme, and 1/2 teaspoon dried rosemary
 

Pumpkin pie spice

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
 


R

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 

Raisins

1 cup

1 cup dried currants

1 cup dried blueberries, cranberries, or cherries

1 cup other dried fruit (chopped into small pieces)
 


Rennet


1 tablet


1 tablespoon liquid rennet
 

Rice (3 cups cooked)

1 cup regular, uncooked

1 cup uncooked converted rice

1 cup uncooked brown rice

1 cup uncooked wild rice

1 cup bulgur or pearl barley, cooked
 

Ricotta cheese

1 cup

1 cup cottage cheese
 

Rum

1/4 cup

1 tablespoon rum extract plus enough liquid to make 1/4 cup
 


S

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Saffron

 


equal amount of Turmeric
 

Shortening, melted

1 cup

1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should not be substituted if recipe does not call for melted shortening)
 

Shortening, solid (used in baking)

1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons lard

1 cup butter

1 cup margarine
 

Sour cream, cultured

1 cup

3/4 cup sour milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

3/4 cup buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese

1 cup plain yogurt

3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
 

Spearmint, dried

1 tablespoon

1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
 

Star Anise, ground

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon ground anise seed

1 teaspoon ground fennel seed
 

Sugar, brown (light or dark)

1 cup firmly packed

1 cup granulated sugar

1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup unsulpured molasses

1/2 cup liquid brown sugar

1 cup raw sugar
 

Sugar, superfine

1 cup

1 cup granulated white sugar processed in a food processor or grinder
 

Sugar, white

1 cup

1 cup corn syrup, decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup (never replace more than 1/2 cup sugar called for in recipe with corn syrup)

1 1/3 cup molasses (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/3 cup)

1 cup caster (superfine) sugar

1 cup powdered (confectioners') sugar

1 cup brown sugar (light or dark), firmly packed

1 cup honey (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup)

 


T

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Tahini


1 tablespoon


1 tablespoon peanut butter
 

Tapioca, instant or quick-cooking

1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons pear tapioca, soaked
 

Tapioca, quick-cooking for thickening

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon of flour
 

Tomatoes, canned

1 cup

1 1/3 cups diced fresh tomatoes simmered 10 minutes
 

Tomatoes, fresh

2 cups, chopped

1 (16-ounce) can tomatoes
 

Tomatoes, packed

1 cup

1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water
 

Tomato Juice

1 cup

1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water
 

Tomato Sauce

2 cups

3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water
 

Tomato Soup

1 (10 3/4 ounce) can

1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 oz. can cup water
 

Treacle

1 cup

1 cup light or dark brown sugar
 


V

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Vanilla bean


1/2 bean


1 tablespoon pure vanilla extract
 

Vanilla Extract, pure

1 teaspoon

1/2 vanilla bean

1/2 to 1 teaspoon other extract (such as almond, peppermint, lemon, orange, etc.)
 

Vegetable Shortening, solid

1 cup

1 cup butter

1 cup lard

1 cup margarine
 

Vinegar, Balsamic

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon sherry vinegar or cider vinegar
 

Vinegar, regular (white or cider)
 

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon lemon or lime juice
 


W

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Worcestershire sauce


1 teaspoon


1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce
 


Y

Ingredient

Amount


Substitutes
 


Yeast, active dry


1 tablespoon


1 yeast cake, compressed

1 package active dry yeast

1 tablespoon instant or fast-rising active yeast
 

Yogurt, plain

1 cup

1 cup buttermilk

1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth

1 cup sour cream
 

 

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