Substituting one ingredient for another should only be done when you don’t have the necessary ingredient on hand in your kitchen. Substitutions can change the flavor and outcome of the finished baked goods.

The following chart gives substitutions that may be used to achieve a product similar to the original when cooking. Find out what to substitute when you’re out of an ingredient – but also remember the following when substituting:

When substituting ingredients, take into account the differences in taste, moisture content, texture and weight.

When substituting for sugar and flour, consider the differences in sweetening and thickening power.

Understand the physical and chemical properties of all ingredients.

Measuring accurately will help avoid disappointment.

 
 

A

  

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Alcohol Substitutions

see Alcohol Substitutions In Cooking

Almond paste

1 1/3 cups

1 3/4 cups ground blanched almonds plus 1 1/2 cups powdered sugar plus 1 egg white plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt

Allspice

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves

Anchovies

1 fillet

1/2 teaspoon anchovy paste

Anise Seed

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon star anise

1 teaspoon cardamom

Anise Extract

1 teaspoon

1 1/2 teaspoon ground anise seed

1/2 teaspoon anise powder

Apple pie spice

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, and either 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom, ginger or cloves

Arrowroot starch

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon cornstarch

2 tablespoons flour (to thicken)

2 1/4 teaspoons of either potato starch or rice starch

B

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Baking dish and pan sizes

see Baking Dish and Pan Sizes - How to substitute different pans sizes

Baking powder, double acting

Rule: 1 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour

1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

1/3 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tarter

1/3 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk, buttermilk, or yogurt (decrease liquid amount called for in recipe by 1/2 cup)

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid amount called for in recipe by 1/2 cup)

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid amount in recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)

1 1/2 teaspoons phosphate or tartate baking powder

1 1/2 teaspoons single-action baking powder

Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)Rule: 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour

1 teaspoon

You need to use 2 to 3 times more double-acting baking powder than baking soda. Replace acidic liquid ingredient in recipe with non-acidic liquid.

3/4 teaspoon Ammonium bicarbonate

Bay leaf

1 whole

1/4 teaspoon crushed bay leaves

Beau Monde seasoning

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon seasoning salt

1/2 teaspoon table salt plus dash of garlic salt, onion salt, and celery salt

1/2 teaspoon Mei Yen seasoning

see Beau Monde Seasoning Salt recipe

Beer

1 cup

1 cup water, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or apricot syrups. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)

Brandy

1/4 cup

1 tsp brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make 1/4 cup

Water, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or apricot syrups. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)

Bread Crumbs, dry

1 cup

1 cup crushed cracker crumbs

1 cup matzo meal

1 cup crushed cornflakes

1 cup ground oats

1 cup crushed potato chips

Bread Crumbs, Soft

3/4 cup

1 slice soft or fresh bread

Broth, beef or chicken

1 cup

1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

1 cup boiling water

1 teaspoon powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water

ButterRule: Don't use spreads or low-fat butter in baking

1 cup

7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat (shortening) and 1/2 teaspoon salt

7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

1 cup margarine

7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

7/8 cup oil

To reduce fat and calories - applesauce or prune puree for half of the butter in the recipe

Buttermilk (sour milk)

1 cup

1 cup milk plus 1 tablespoons vinegar (white or cider) or lemon juice (let stand 5 minutes before using)

1 cup milk plus 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar

1 cup mild-flavored soy milk, plus 1 tablespoons vinegar (white or cider) or lemon juice (let stand 5 minutes before using)

1 cup plain or low fat yogurt

1 cup sour cream

1 cup water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder

C

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Cajun Spice

1 tablespoon

1/2 teaspoon white pepper, 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder, 1/2 teaspoon onion powder, 1/2 teaspoon ground red pepper, 1/2 teaspoon paprika, and 1/2 teaspoon black pepper

Cake Flour

1 cup

1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons

Can sizes and equivalents

see Can Sizes and Equivalents

Cardamon, ground

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon ground anise

Catsup

1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar, and 2 tbsp vinegar for use in cooking)

Chervil, fresh

1 tablespoon chopped

1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley

Chicken stock base, instant

1 teaspoon

1 chicken bouillon cube

Chicken stock base, instant

1 tbsp dissolved in 1 cup water

1 cup canned chicken broth1 cup homemade chicken broth or chicken stock

Chili sauce

1 cup

1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice

Chives, finely chopped

2 teaspoons

2 teaspoons finely chopped green onion tops

Chocolate chips, semi-sweet Also check out Chocolate Substitution Chart

1 ounce

1 ounce sweet cooking chocolate

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar

Chocolate chips, semi-sweet chips, melted

6-ounce package

2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 2 tablespoons shortening, and 1/2 cup sugar

Chocolate, semi-sweet

1 2/3 ounces

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate and 4 teaspoon sugar

Chocolate, unsweetened

1 square or 1 ounce

3 tablespoons cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine

3 tablespoon carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water

Chocolate, white

1 ounce

1 ounce milk chocolate

1 ounce sweet dark chocolate

Cocoa powder, natural unsweetened

3 tablespoons

1 ounce (square) chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 tablespoon)

3 tablespoon Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar

3 tablespoons carob powder

Cocoa, Dutch Processed

3 tablespoons

3 tablespoons natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)

3 tablespoons carob powder

Coconut

1 tablespoon grated, dry

1 1/2 tablespoons fresh grated coconut

Coconut cream, canned

1 cup

1 cup heavy cream or whipping cream

Coconut milk, canned

1 cup

1 cup whole milk

Coffee, strong brewed

1/4 cup

2 tablespoons instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water

Condensed cream of mushroom soup

1 (10.75-ounce can)

1 (10.75 ounce can) condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, or golden mushroom soup.

Cornmeal, self-rising

1 cup

7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tablespoons baking powder, and 1/2 teaspoon salt

Cornmeal, stone ground

1 cup

1 cup regular milled cornmeal, corn grits, polenta, or maize meal

Corn syrup

1 cup

1 cup granulated sugar and 1/4 liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe)

1 cup honey

1 cup light corn syrup

3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup molasses

1 cup maple-flavored syrup

Cornstarch (for thickening)

1 tablespoon

2 tablespoon all-purpose flour

2 tablespoon granulated tapioca

1 tablespoon potato or rice starch

1 tablespoon arrowroot

4 teaspoon. instant tapioca

Cottage cheese

1 cup

1 cup farmer's cheese

1 cup ricotta cheese

Cracker crumbs

1 cup

1 cup dry bread crumbs

1 cup ground oats

1 cup matzo meal

Cream, half-and-half

1 cup

1/2 cup whole milk, plus 1/2 cup light cream

7/8 cup milk and 1/2 tablespoon butter or margarine

1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted

3 tablespoons oil plus enough milk to equal 1 cup

1/2 cup coffee cream plus 1/2 cup milk

Cream, heavy (36 to 40% fat)

1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil

1 cup evaporated skim milk

equal parts of part skim milk ricotta cheese and nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth (this mixture cannot be heated because of separation)

Cream, light (18 to 20% fat)

1 cup

3/4 cup milk and 3 tablespoons butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted

Cream, whipped

any amount

Chill a 13 ounce can of evaporated milk for 12 hours. Add 1 tablespoon lemon juice. Whip until stiff.

Beating until stiff, 1/2 cup ice-cold water and 1/2 cup nonfat dry milk. Slowly add 1/2 cup sugar while beating. Add 2 tablespoons lemon juice (for cooking only)

1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed

Cream cheese

1 cup

1 cup pureed cottage cheese

1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth

Cream of tartar

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar

Creme fraiche

1 cup

Combine 1 cup heavy cream and 1 tablespoon plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature

1 cup sour cream

1/2 cup sour cream plus 1/2 cup heavy cream

1 cup mascarpone cheese

Currants

1 cup

1 cup raisins

1 cup chopped dates

1 cup other dried fruit (cranberries, blueberries, cherries)

D

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Dill plant, fresh or dried

3 heads

1 tablespoons dill seed

E

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Egg

1 whole (3 tablespoons or 1.7 ounce)

3 tablespoons and 1 teaspoon thawed frozen egg

2 1/2 tablespoons sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tablespoons warm water

2 yolks and 1 tablespoon water (in cookies)

2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixtures)

1/2 teaspoon baking powder, 1 tablespoon vinegar, and 1 tablespoon liquid (in baking)

1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 tablespoon cornstarch in baking

Soften 1 tablespoon unflavored gelatin in 3 tablespoons cold water; add 3 teaspoons boiling water; cool and beat until frothy; add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 tablespoons)

1/4 cup commercial egg substitute

Egg white

1 white (2 tablespoons)

2 tablespoons thawed frozen egg white

2 teaspoons sifted, dry egg white powder plus 2 tablespoons lukewarm water

Egg yolk

1 yolk (1 1/2 tablespoons)

2 tablespoons sifted, dry egg yolk powder and 2 teaspoons water

1 1/3 tablespoons thawed frozen egg yolk

Extracts (such ash lemon or peppermint)

1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon of oil of similar flavor

2 drops oil of similar flavor

F

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Fish sauce

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce

1 teaspoon light soy sauce with salt

Flour, all-purpose (for thickening)

1 tablespoon

1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch

1 tablespoon granular tapioca

1 tablespoon waxy rice flour

1 tablespoon waxy corn flour

2 tablespoons browned flour

1 1/2 teaspoon whole wheat flour and 1/2 teaspoon all purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose

Note: Specialty flours added to yeast bread recipes will result in a reduced volume and heavier product.

1 cup sifted

1 cup and 2 tablespoons cake flour

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons unsifted all-purpose flour

1 1/2 cup bread crumbs

1 cup rolled oats

1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, rye flour or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour

1 cup rye or rice flour

1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, cake

1 cup sifted

1 cup sifted all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour

Flour, self-rising

1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour plus 1/1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt

Flour, whole wheat

any amount

Substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of the white flour called for in a recipe

G

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Garlic

1 clove, small

1/8 teaspoon garlic powder

1/4 teaspoon instant minced garlic

1/2 teaspoon granulated garlic

1/2 to 1 teaspoon garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe)

Garlic Salt

3/4 teaspoon

1 medium-size clove or 1/2 teaspoon minced fresh garlic

Gelatin, powdered (plain or unflavored)

1 envelope (1/4 ounce), 1 tablespoon granulated

2 teaspoons agar agar

4 sheets gelatin

Gelatin, leaf or sheet

4 leaves or sheets

1 (1/4 ounce) envelope powdered gelatin

Gelatin, flavored

3-ounce package

1 tablespoon plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice

Ghee

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon butter

1 tablespoon vegetable oil

Ginger root, fresh

1 teaspoon freshly grated

1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

1 tablespoon candied ginger, rinsed and finely chopped

Green onions, fresh

1/2 cup chopped

1/2 cup chopped onion

1/2 cup chopped leek

1/2 cup chopped shallots

H

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Herbs, fresh

1 tablespoon finely cut

1 teaspoon dried ground herbs

1 teaspoon dried crumbled herbs

Herring

8 ounces

8 ounces sardines

Honey

1 cup

1 1/4 cup granulated sugar and 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe)

1 cup light molasses, light or dark corn syrup, light treacle syrup, or maple syrup

Horseradish

1 tablespoon fresh

2 tablespoons bottled

Hot pepper sauce

1 teaspoon

3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper plus 1 teaspoon vinegar

I

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Italian Seasoning

Combine 1 teaspoon basil, 1 tablespoon fresh or dried parsley, and 1/2 teaspoon oregano

L

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Lemon juice, freshly squeezed

1 tablespoon juice

1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice

1 tablespoon fresh lime juice

Lemon, whole

1 medium

2 tablespoons lemon juice and 2 to 3 teaspoons lemon rind (zest)

Lemon peel, dried

1 teaspoon

1 to 2 teaspoons grated fresh lemon peel (zest)

grated peel of 1 medium lemon

1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

Lemon zest (peel)

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon lemon extract

2 tablespoon lemon juice

1 teaspoon lime zest

Lemon grass

Equal amount of grated lemon zest moistened with a bit of fresh lemon juice

Lime juice, freshly squeezed

1 tablespoon juice

1 tablespoon bottled lime juice

1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice

Lime zest (peel)

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon grated fresh lemon peel (zest)

M

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Macaroni, (4 cups cooked)

2 cups uncooked

2 cups spaghetti, uncooked

4 cups noodles, uncooked

Maple sugar

1/2 cup

1 cup maple syrup (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup)

3/4 cup granulated white sugar plus 1 teaspoon pure maple extract

1 cup granulated white sugar

Maple Syrup

about 2 cups

Combine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 teaspoon maple flavoring

1 cup honey

Marshmallows, miniature

1 cup

8 to 10 large marshmallows

Marshmallow creme

1 jar

melt 16 ounces of marshmallows and 3 1/2 tablespoons corn syrup in a double broiler

Mascarpone cheese

1 cup

1 cup creme fraiche

1 cup sour cream

Mayonnaise (for use in salads and salad dressings

1 cup

1/2 cup yogurt and 1/2 cup mayonnaise

1 cup either yogurt, salad dressing, or sour cream

1 cup cottage cheese pureed in blender

Me Yen seasoning

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon Beau Monde seasoning

1/2 teaspoon table salt

Milk, evaporated (whole or skim)

1 cup plus

1 cup liquid whole milk

1 cup regular cream, whipping, or heavy cream

Milk, skim

1 cup

4 to 5 tablespoons non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make one cup, or follow manufacturer's directions

Milk, skim

1/4 cup

4 teaspoons non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1/4 cup, or follow manufacturer's directions

2 tablespoons evaporated skim milk and 2 tablespoons water

Milk, sweetened condensed

1 can (about 1 1/3 cups)

Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 cup and 2 tablespoons evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, 3 tablespoons butter or margarine

Milk, whole

1 cup

1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk and 2 tsp butter or margarine

1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water

1/2 cup condensed milk plus 1/2 cup water

4 tablespoons whole dry milk and 1 cup water, or follow manufacturer's directions

1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)

1/4 cup non-fat dry milk and 2 tsp butter or margarine and 7/8 cup water

1 cup soy or almond milk

1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking

1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder in recipe by 2 tsp)

Mint leaves, fresh chopped

1/4 cup

1 tablespoon dried mint leaves

Molasses

1 cup

1 cup honey, dark corn syrup, maple syrup, brown rice syrup, or barley malt syrup

3/4 cup sugar, increase liquid by 5 tablespoons, decrease baking soda by 1/2 teaspoon, and add 2 teaspoons baking powder to recipe

Mushrooms, fresh

1 pound

3 ounces dried mushrooms plus 1 1/2 cups water

1 (10-ounce) can

Mustard, dry

1 teaspoon

1 tablespoon prepared mustard

1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds

Mustard, Dijon

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon dry mustard mixed with 1 teaspoon water, 1 teaspoon white wine vinegar, 1 tablespoon mayonnaise, and a pinch of sugar

N

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Nuts, chopped, ground or whole

1 cup

1 cup similar nuts (your favorite) prepared in the same way

1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products)

O

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Oil (for sauteing)

1/4 cup

1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening, or lard

Old Bay Seasoning

see Old Bay Seasoning Recipe

Onion, fresh

1 small

rehydrate 1 tbsp instant minced onion

Onion

1 small

1/4 cup chopped, fresh green onions

1 1/3 teaspoons onion salt

1 to 2 tablespoons instant minced onion

1 teaspoon onion powder

2 tablespoons dried minced onion

Orange, whole

1 medium

6 to 8 tablespoons juice and 2 to 3 tablespoon grated rind (zest)

Orange juice, freshly squeezed

1 cup

1 cup reconstituted frozen orange concentrate

1 cup other citrus juice (of your choice)

Orange peel (zest), fresh

1 medium

2 to 3 tablespoons grated fresh orange peel (zest)

1 teaspoon lemon juice

1/2 teaspoon orange extract

P

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Parmesan cheese, grated

1/2 cup

1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese or grated Romano cheese

Parsley, fresh

1 teaspoon chopped

1 teaspoon dried parsley

1 tablespoon chopped fresh chervil

Peanut Butter

1 cup

1 cup of another nut butter (such as almond or hazelnut butter)

1 cup tahini (sesame paste)

Pepper, white

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon black pepper

Peppers, green bell

1 tablespoon dried

3 tablespoons fresh green pepper, chopped

Peppers, red bell

1 tablespoon dried

3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped

2 tablespoons chopped pimento

Peppermint, dried

1 tablespoon

1/4 cup chopped fresh mint

Pimento

2 tablespoons, chopped

rehydrate 1 tablespoon dried red bell peppers

3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped

Polenta, dry

1 cup

1 cup cornmeal

1 cup maize meal

1 cup corn grits

Poultry seasoning

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon ground sage, 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme, and 1/2 teaspoon dried rosemary

Pumpkin pie spice

1 teaspoon

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg

R

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Raisins

1 cup

1 cup dried currants

1 cup dried blueberries, cranberries, or cherries

1 cup other dried fruit (chopped into small pieces)

Rennet

1 tablet

1 tablespoon liquid rennet

Rice (3 cups cooked)

1 cup regular, uncooked

1 cup uncooked converted rice

1 cup uncooked brown rice

1 cup uncooked wild rice

1 cup bulgur or pearl barley, cooked

Ricotta cheese

1 cup

1 cup cottage cheese

Rum

1/4 cup

1 tablespoon rum extract plus enough liquid to make 1/4 cup

S

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Saffron

equal amount of Turmeric

Shortening, melted

1 cup

1 cup cooking oil (cooking oil should not be substituted if recipe does not call for melted shortening)

Shortening, solid (used in baking)

1 cup

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons lard

1 cup butter

1 cup margarine

Sour cream, cultured

1 cup

3/4 cup sour milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

3/4 cup buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese

1 cup plain yogurt

3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Spearmint, dried

1 tablespoon

1/4 cup chopped fresh mint

Star Anise, ground

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon ground anise seed

1 teaspoon ground fennel seed

Sugar, brown (light or dark)

1 cup firmly packed

1 cup granulated sugar

1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup unsulpured molasses

1/2 cup liquid brown sugar

1 cup raw sugar

Sugar, superfine

1 cup

1 cup granulated white sugar processed in a food processor or grinder

Sugar, white

1 cup

1 cup corn syrup, decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup (never replace more than 1/2 cup sugar called for in recipe with corn syrup)

1 1/3 cup molasses (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/3 cup)

1 cup caster (superfine) sugar

1 cup powdered (confectioners') sugar

1 cup brown sugar (light or dark), firmly packed

1 cup honey (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup)

T

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Tahini

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon peanut butter

Tapioca, instant or quick-cooking

1 tablespoon

2 tablespoons pear tapioca, soaked

Tapioca, quick-cooking for thickening

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon of flour

Tomatoes, canned

1 cup

1 1/3 cups diced fresh tomatoes simmered 10 minutes

Tomatoes, fresh

2 cups, chopped

1 (16-ounce) can tomatoes

Tomatoes, packed

1 cup

1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water

Tomato Juice

1 cup

1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water

Tomato Sauce

2 cups

3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water

Tomato Soup

1 (10 3/4 ounce) can

1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 oz. can cup water

Treacle

1 cup

1 cup light or dark brown sugar

V

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Vanilla bean

1/2 bean

1 tablespoon pure vanilla extract

Vanilla Extract, pure

1 teaspoon

1/2 vanilla bean

1/2 to 1 teaspoon other extract (such as almond, peppermint, lemon, orange, etc.)

Vegetable Shortening, solid

1 cup

1 cup butter

1 cup lard

1 cup margarine

Vinegar, Balsamic

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon sherry vinegar or cider vinegar

Vinegar, regular (white or cider)

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon lemon or lime juice

W

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Worcestershire sauce

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce

Y

Ingredient

Amount

Substitutes

Yeast, active dry

1 tablespoon

1 yeast cake, compressed

1 package active dry yeast

1 tablespoon instant or fast-rising active yeast

Yogurt, plain

1 cup

1 cup buttermilk

1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth

1 cup sour cream