Internal Temperature Cooking Chart
Beef - Pork - Poultry - Fish and Seafood - Baked Goods

© copyright 2004 by Linda Stradley - United States Copyright TX 5-900-517- All rights reserved. This web site may not be reproduced in whole or in part without permission and appropriate credit given. If you quote any of the history information contained below for research in writing a magazine or newspaper article, school work or college research, and/or television show production, you must give a reference to the author, Linda Stradley, and to the web site What's Cooking America.


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Great cooks use a cooking thermometer as their guide - NOT a clock.

Learn how to read and use an Internal Meat and Cooking Thermometer.

Cooking thermometers take the guesswork out of cooking, as they measure the internal temperatures of your cooked meat, poultry, seafood, baked goods, and/or casseroles, to assure that a safe temperature has been reached, harmful bacteria have been destroyed, and your food is cooked perfectly. Always follow internal cooking temperatures to be safe!

A cooking or meat thermometer should not be a sometime thing. A cooking thermometer can be used for all foods, not just meat. It measures the internal temperature of your cooked meat, poultry, seafood, breads, baked goods, and/or casseroles to assure that a safe temperature has been reached and that harmful bacteria (like certain strains of Salmonella and E. Coli O 157:H7) has been destroyed. Foods are properly cooked only when they are heated at a high enough temperature to kill harmful bacteria that cause food-borne illness. Use it every time you prepare foods like beef, pork, poultry, roasts, hams, casseroles, meat loaves, egg dishes, and even your baked goods. If you don't regularly use a thermometer, you should get into the habit of using one.

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, internal temperature is the only way to gauge whether food is sufficiently cooked. USDA research reveals that the "color test" can give consumers misleading information about the safety of the foods they are preparing, since cooked color varies considerably. For example, freezing and thawing may influence a meat's tendency to brown prematurely.

This is the type of cooking and meat thermometer that I prefer and use in my cooking. I get many readers asking what cooking/meat thermometer that I prefer and use in my cooking and baking. I, personally, use the Thermapen Thermometer shown in the photo on the right. To learn more about this excellent thermometer and to also purchase one (if you desire), just click on the underlined: Thermapen Thermometer.
 



Beef, Veal, and Lamb Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures

The following Internal Temperature Cooking Charts are a work in progress. I have been researching and testing recipes for many years to come up with the perfect cooking and baking internal temperatures. Remember - Great cooks use a cooking thermometer as their guide - not a clock. I welcome any help, suggestions, and advice that you could contribute on internal cooking temperatures. Please e-mail me (just click on the underlined): Linda Stradley. Thank you in advance for your help!

Degree of Doneness

Internal Core Temperature

Internal Description

 


Beef - Lamb - Veal
Roasts - Steaks - Chops


Residual Heat or Carry-Over Cooking: Remember, the steak will continue to cook as it sets. The temperature will rise 5 degrees F. to 10 degrees F. internal temperature. So, pay attention to how long you let the cooked meat sit before serving.

Carry-over cooking is caused by residual heat transferring from the hotter exterior of the meat to the cooler center. As a general rule, the larger and thicker the cut of meat, and the higher the cooking temperature, the more residual heat will be in the meat, and the more the internal temperature will rise during resting due to carry-over cooking. This means the meat must be removed from the heat at an internal temperature lower than your desired final internal temperature, allowing the residual heat to finish the cooking.


Extra-rare or Blue (bleu)



80 to 100 degrees F
26 to 38 degrees C
 


deep red color and barely warm
 


feels soft and squishy
 

Rare
 


120 to 125 degrees F
49 to 51 degrees C
 


center is bright red, pinkish toward the exterior portion, and warm throughout
 

soft to touch
 

Medium Rare
 


130 to 135 degrees F
55 to 57 degrees C
 


center is very pink, slightly brown toward the exterior portion, and slightly hot
 

yields only slightly to the touch, beginning to firm up

Medium
 


140 to 145 degrees F
60 to 63 degrees C
 


center is light pink, outer portion is brown, and hot throughout
 

yields only slightly to the touch, beginning to firm up


Medium Well
 


150 to 155 degrees F
65 to 69 degrees C
 

mostly gray-brown throughout with a hint of pink in the center

firm to touch
 


Well Done

 


160 degrees F and above
71 degrees C
 


steak is uniformly brown or grey throughout
 

firm or hard to touch
 


Brisket
 


165 to 175 degrees F
74 to 79 degrees C
 


If the meat pulls apart easily, the brisket is ready to serve.
 

 

Ground Meat
Patties - Meatloaf - Meatballs
 


160 to 165 degrees F
71 to 74 degrees C

 


For hamburger patties, insert the digital food thermometer through the side of the patty, all the way to the middle
.

 

 


Poultry Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Core Temperature

Internal Description


Poultry


Remember that the chicken will continue to cook after it's removed from the heat and the internal temperature will rise about 5 to 10 degrees F. in the first few minutes it's off the heat.
 


Whole Chicken or Duck


Dark meat
 

Breast meat
 


160 to 165 degrees F.
71 to 74 degrees C.

160 to 165 degrees F.
71 to 74 degrees C.

160 to 165 degrees F.
71 to 74 degrees C.

 


Insert it in the inner thigh area near the breast of the bird, but not touching the bone. Cook until juices run clear

 


Whole Turkey

 


165 degrees F.
74 degrees C.
 


Juices run clear and leg moves easily.

A 12-pound turkey can easily handle 60 to 90 minutes of resting. During that time, temperature can rise 30 degrees if not exposed to drafts.

 


Ground Poultry
(Chicken and Turkey)
 


160 to 165 degrees F.
71 to 74 degrees C.
 

 


Turkey Stuffing
(cooked alone or in turkey)

 


165 degrees F.
74 degrees C.
 

 


Pork Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Core Temperature

Internal Description


Pork
Roasts - Steaks - Chops
 


Remember that the pork will continue to cook after it's removed from the heat and the internal temperature will rise about 5 to 10 degrees F. in the first few minutes it's off the heat.
 

Medium


140 to 145 degrees F.
60 to 63 degrees C.
 

pale pink center


Well Done


160 degrees F. and above


steak is uniformly brown throughout

 

 


Pork ribs - Pork shoulders - Brisket
 


180 to 200 degrees F.
82 to 93 degrees C.
 


Pale white to tan. Cooked medium to well done
 

 


Sausage

Raw Sausage

Sausage (pre-cooked)

 



160 degrees F.
71 degrees C.

140 degrees F.
60 degrees C.
 

no longer pink



 

 


Ham

Raw Ham

Pre-cooked Ham

 


160 degrees F.
71 degrees C.

140 degrees F.
60 degrees C.
 


Fish and Seafood Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Description

Internal Core Temperature



Fish
Whole - Steaks - Fillets


Salmon


Halibut, Cod, Red Snapper, Tilapia and Sea Bass


Trout


Tuna - Swordfish - Marlin



Ahi Tuna (Sashimi grade)


 





 

130 to 135 degrees F.
54 to 57 degrees C.

130 to 135 degrees F.
54 to 57 degrees C.


135 to 140 degrees F.
57 to 60 degrees C.

125 degrees F.
51 degrees C.


115 to 120 degrees F.
46 to 49 degrees C.

 

 




Fish is slightly translucent and flakes easily,


Salmon has almost do collagen. This means it will start to lose moisture more quickly than beef.

 

 

 


C
ook until medium-rare (do not overcook or the meat will become dry and lose its flavor)

Ahi Tuna is most often served rare or seared rare. This is because the longer you cook it, the more flavor and moisture it loses. Sashimi grade tuna has been flash frozen to kill any parasites.
 

 

 


Shrimp
 

120 degrees F.
49 degrees C.


Cook until medium-rare and the shrimp just start to turn pink (do not overcook or the shrimp will become dry and lose its flavor).
 
 


Medium-size, boiling

Large-size, boiling

Jumbo-size, boiling

 


3 to 4 minutes

5 to 7 minutes

7 to 8 minutes


 

 

 


Lobster
 


 


Place thermometer in the tail to check the internal temperature. Lobster requires a high temperature than other fish since its muscle fibers are longer and require more heat to shrink.

 


Boiled or Steamed, whole Lobster


Grilled Lobster


Baked, Grilled or Broiled Lobster Tail - each

 


175 degrees F.
79 degrees C.

145 degrees F.
62 degrees C.

135 to 140 degrees F.
57 to 60 degrees C.



 

Shell cut - piggyback lobster tail (lobster meat is exposed).

 


Scallops

 


 


120 degrees F.
48 degrees C.


Sear, bake, or broil each side for approximately 4 minutes or until an instant-read cooking or meat thermometer inserted into their centers reach 115 degrees F. Remove from heat. The carryover cooking will add another 10 to 15 degrees, for an ideal final temperature of 125 to 130 degrees F. They should also have lost their translucence and turn opaque.
 

 


Clams - Mussels - Oysters

 

Cook clams, mussels, and oysters until their shells just open. Throw away the ones that do not open.
 




Baked Goods Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Description

Internal Core Temperature


Breads

Quick Breads (Breads, Muffins and Cornbread)


Yeast Breads


Soft Breads/Dinner Rolls


Scones


Sourdough Breads


Cinnamon Rolls


Water temperature to add yeast

 




200 degrees F.
93 degrees C.

200 to 210 degrees F.
93 to 99 degrees C.

180 to 190 degrees F.
82 to 88 degrees C.

200 degrees F.
93 degrees C.

200 to 210 degrees F.
93 to 99 degrees C.

190 to 200 degrees F.
87 to 93 degrees C.

105 to 115 degrees F.
41 to 46 degrees C.


Insert the thermometer from the side of the bread. If the bread is in a loaf pan, insert it just above the edge of the pan directing it at a downward angle.

 

 


Cakes - Cupcakes


Carrot Cake


Clafouti (with fruit)


Devil's Food Cake - Red Velvet Cake


Molten Chocolate Cakes


Pound Cake


Tres Leches Cake, Three-Milk Cake


Upside-Down Cakes

 


205 to 209 degrees F.
93 to 98 degrees C.

205 to 209 degrees F.
93 to 98 degrees C.

160 degrees F.
71 degrees C.

205 degrees F.
93 degrees C.

160 degrees F.
71 degrees C.

210 to 212 degrees F.
99 to 100 degrees C.

200 degrees F.
93 degrees C.

190 to 200 degrees F
88 to 93 degrees C
 


Insert thermometer in the center of the cake.

Remember: The cooking process continues even after you remove the cake out of the oven. As the cake cools, the residual heat on the surface slowly penetrates to the middle.

 


Cheesecakes


150 degrees F.
65 degrees C.


When the internal temperature of a cheesecake rises beyond 160 degrees F. while baking, it will always crack. To prevent this from happening, Take it out of the oven when the cheesecake reaches 150 degrees F. at the center to avoid over baking.

 

 


Pies

Chocolate Cream Pie


Custard Pie - Cream Pies


Fruit Pies (Blueberry, Blackberry, etc.)


Pecan Pie


Pumpkin Pie


Sweet Potato Pie


Meringue Pies

 

 


165 degrees F.
74 degrees C.

170 to 175 degrees F.
76 to 79 degrees C.

175 degrees F.
79 degrees C.


200 degrees F.
93 degrees C.

175 degrees F.
79 degrees C.

175 degrees F.
79 degrees C.

160 to 165 degrees F.
71 to 74 degrees C.

 


Insert thermometer a couple inches in from the edge of the pie.


 

 


 

 


Puddings and Custards:

Bread Pudding


Creme Brulee


Baked Custard (Old Fashion)


Flan

 

 


160 degrees F.
71 degrees C.

175 degrees F.
79 degrees C.

160 degrees F.
71 degrees C.

175 degrees F.
79 degrees C.

 


Insert thermometer in the centers. Begin checking temperature about 5 minutes before recommended time.
 

 


 



Candy or Sugar Syrup Temperature
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Core Temperature:

Description:


Candy:


When using a temperatures specified below are for sea level. At higher altitudes, subtract 1° F from every listed temperature for each 500 feet above sea level.
 


Thread Stage

 


230 to 235 degrees F.
110 to 112 degrees C.


Syrup and Binding agent for fruit pastes:
A spoonful of sugar drizzled over a plate forms a fine, thin thread. This stage makes a syrup, not a candy.
 


Soft-ball Stage

 


235 to 240 degrees F.
112 to 116 degrees C.


Fudge, Fondant, Creams, Penuche, Maple, etc:
When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it forms a ball that does not hold its shape when pressed with your fingers.
 


Firm-ball Stage

 


244 to 248 degrees F.
118 to 120 degrees C.


Caramels and Divinity:
When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it forms a ball that holds its shape, but it still sticky, when pressed with your fingers.
 


Hard-ball Stage

 


250 to 266 degrees F.
121 to 130 degrees C.


Taffy and Marshmallows
When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it forms a ball that holds its shape but is pliable.
 


Soft-crack Stage

 


270 to 290 degrees F.
132 to 143 degrees C.


Butterscotch and Toffee:
When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it scan be stretched between your fingers and separates into hard but not brittle threads.

 


Hard-crack Stage

 


300 to 310 degrees F.
149 to 154 degrees C.


Brittles and Lollipops:
When a small amount of sugar syrup is dropped into very cold water, it will solidify but will separates into hard brittle threads.
 


Light Caramel Stage

 


320 to 335 degrees F.
160 to 170 degrees C.


Glazes, coating agent
Poured onto a white plate the syrup will be honey-golden in color.
 


Dark Caramel Stage


Up to 350 degrees F.
177 degrees C.

Watch carefully as any temperature above 350 degrees F. begins to burn the sugar and it will develop a bitter, burnt taste.
 


Glazes, coating agent
Poured onto a white plate the syrup will be deep reddish amber in color

 




Vegetables
Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Core Temperature

Description


Baked Potato


Boiled Whole Potato

 


210 to 212 degrees F.
98 to 100 degrees C.

200 degrees F.
93 degrees C.


Potatoes are done if tender when pierced with a fork and the internal temperature reached.

 



Water Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Core Temperature

Description


Check out my articles on
How To Boil Water - Boiling Points of Water and Poaching vs. Simmering vs. Boiling
 


Tepid Water


Warm Water


Hot Water


Poach



Simmer

 

Slow Boil


Boiling


85 to 105 degrees F.
29 to 40 degrees C.

115 to 120 degrees F.
46 to 48 degrees C.

130 to 135 degrees F.
54 to 57 degrees C.

160 to 180 degrees F.
71 to 82 degrees C.


185 to 200 degrees F.
85 to 93 degrees C.

 

205 degrees F.
96 degrees C.

212 degrees F.
100 degrees C.


Water is comparable to the temperature of the human body.


Water is touchable but not hot.


Water too hot too touch.


Poaching is "to cook an item by submerging it in a liquid that is just barely simmering." Poaching is not a rolling boil. Poaching, compared to boiling, is a much gentler technique.

A simmer is sometimes called a "gentle boil." Small bubbles periodically rise to the surface - the gentler and slower the bubbles, the lower the temperature.

There is more movement and noticeably larger bubbles than simmering.

The water is rolling, bubbling, and steaming.
High Altitude: Each 500 foot increase in altitude will cause a drop of approximately one (1) degree in the boiling point.

 


 


Misc. Internal Temperature Chart:
Fahrenheit and Celsius Cooking Temperatures
 

 

Internal Core Temperature

Description


Casseroles and Leftovers


165 to 175 degrees F.
74 to 79 degrees C.
 


Insert thermometer in the center.

Some times the 165 degrees F. temperature only warms the casserole, and may not be not enough for you. Then continue until 175 degrees F. is reached.
 


Sauces using eggs:

Hollandaise Sauce

 


160 degrees F.


 


As raw eggs carries a risk of salmonella infection. Heat the sauce to 160 degrees F. on your digital thermometer to kill bacteria.


Egg Dishes


160 to 165 degrees F.
71 degrees C.
 


When eggs are part of the recipe it is necessary that the internal temperature of the baking item reach at least 160 degrees F. (71 degrees C.) in order to kill any dangerous bacteria.
 


Egg Nog and Ice Cream Custard


160 to 165 degrees F.
71 to 74 degrees C.
 

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