Tabasco Sauce (tuh-BAS-koh) – It is a commercially made hot sauce that is considered the “King of All Pepper Sauces.” Available worldwide, and made in Avery Island, Louisiana by the McIlhenny family since the 1880s. Used as a table sauce and as a cooking ingredient.
History: Check out History of Tabasco Pepper Sauce.
taco (tah-KOH) – Taco in Spanish means a sandwich made with a tortilla. Like a sandwich, it can be made with almost any thing and prepared in many different ways. The taco can be eaten as an entree or snack. They are made with soft corn tortillas or fried corn tortillas folded over.
taco pastor – The most popular taco in Mexico. This is marinated pork that is sprinkled with fresh onions and other spices.
tahini – Tahini is the equivalent of peanut butter; only it is made from 100% crushed sesame seeds. It can be used as a sandwich spread, or mixed with a variety of other seasonings such as garlic and onion or cayenne pepper for a tasty dip or salad dressing. Tahini is a key ingredient in hummus, the traditional Middle Eastern chickpea spread.
tamale (tuh-MAL-ee) – Tamales are a Mexican dish consisting of seasoned chopped meats or vegetables enclosed in corn masa (dough) and wrapped in a softened corn husk. The savory packages are steamed and the corn husks are peeled away before eating. In Mexico, tamales are often served for special occasions, and the tradition of cooking tamales is passed from generation to generation. For the preparation of tamales, everyone in the family has a single task, from the oldest, who will probably be the one who prepares the cornmeal dough, up to the youngest that will cut the rope to wrap them.
History: The origin of the tamale is unknown. The journalist Marjorie Ross, author of the book Al calor del Fog (“Near the Woodstove”), mentions that the origin of the “tamalli”, the original name of the tamale, was a typical food of the indigenous people in the Pre-Columbian era. Many writings of Fray Benardino de Sahag refer to the variety of tamales found in the Aztec market places, as well as those eaten in Montezuma’s feasts.
tamarind (TAM-uh-rihnd) – Tamarind takes its English name from the Arabic, tamarhindi, meaning “Indian Date.” It is the fruit (pods or seeds) of a tall shade tree native to Asia and northern Africa and widely grown in India. It is typically used in equatorial cuisines such as Indian, Mexican, and Thai. It is used to season foods such as chutneys, curries, and pickled fish. It is also an integral ingredient in Worcestershire sauce.
tapa (TAH-pah) – Any type of food can be a tapa – anything that is easy to eat so that the natural flow of conversation is not interrupted. It is Spanish food served in small appetizer-sized portions. The word translates as “cover.” In Spain, tapas are served between meals, or maybe before that late dinner that begins at 10:00 p.m., in tapas bars. Lunch in Spain is traditionally served at 2:00 p.m. and dinner no earlier than 10:00 p.m. Tapas can be as simple as a bowl of olives or something more hearty such as stuffed potatoes. In many Spanish restaurants, tapas are served free with a drink, the purpose being to keep you sober, and keep you going. After all, when you went back to sip your drink you were not going to throw what covered the glass away. Just eat it! And get another tapa in the process.
History: The history of the tapa is not really truly documented:
(1) Some authors assure that tapas were born when, and due to an illness, the Spanish King Alfonso X (1226-1285) had to take small bites of food with some wine between meals. Once recovered from the disease, the king ordered that in all inns of Castile’s land, wine was not to be served without something to eat.
(2) Tapas originated in Andalucia, a Southern Province of Spain because of the need of farmers and workers to take a small amount of food during their working time to allow them to continue their job until the main meal time came.
(3) Another story that makes sense has to do with the Spanish character. In the south of Spain, when someone ordered a glass of sherry or wine in the company of friends, it became custom to top the glass “tapar” with a slice of bread or sausage to keep insects and such out of the glass during the inevitable and interminable conversation that took place. This custom developed and what was served was popularly called the “tapa”. Tapas traditionally may have been a complimentary piece of ham served on top of a glass of sherry (hence the word cover).
tapioca – (tap-eee-OH-kuh) – Tapioca in its fresh form is called “Yuca,” but Yuca is another name for what is the root of the cassava plant. To confuse things further, this root is also known as “manioc,” “mandioca,” and in some instance “tapioca.” Raw, it has a bland and sticky quality and is used in cooking the way you would a potato (it can be boiled, mashed, fried, etc.). Cassava is a bushy plant producing tubers, the starchy underground stem of the plant, that have fed the indigenous people of the Americas for millennia and much of Africa since the 17th century. Cassava ranks sixth among crops in global production. Cassava was introduced to Africa by the Portuguese more than 300 years ago and today is the primary carbohydrate source in sub-Saharan Africa.
The tapioca most people are familiar with is either tapioca flour or pearl tapioca, which is made from dried cassava.
tapioca flour – It is used as a thickening agent in the same way as you would use cornstarch.
pearl tapioca – It comes in several sizes and is available either “regular” or “instant” and it used to thicken custards, pie fillings, and puddings.
instant pearl tapioca – It is what is mostly available in supermarkets, whereas other forms of tapioca can be obtained in health food stores, Asian, or Hispanic markets.
tapioca pudding – History: According to the MINUTE Tapioca Company, tapioca pudding originated in 1894 by Susan Stavers, a Boston housewife, who took in boarders. Among them was an ailing sailor who had brought some cassava roots from his journeys. Hoping to soothe the sailor, she made a sweet and delicious tapioca pudding from the roots. To create a smoother consistency, Stavers took the sailor’s suggestion of putting the tapioca through the coffee grinder. The pudding turned out smooth, and Susan received rave reviews from her boarders. Soon news of her dessert spread, and Stavers was regularly grinding tapioca, packing it in paper bags and selling it to the neighbors.
John Whitman, a newspaper publisher heard of this wonderful recipe, bought the rights to Susan’s process and the MINUTE Tapioca Company was born. It became part of the General Foods family in 1926 and part of Kraft Foods, Inc. in 1989.
tartar, tartare (tar-ter) –
(1) Tartar sauce – refers to the sauce made of mayonnaise dressing with chopped pickles that is commonly served with seafood. Also called “sauce tartare” in other countries. In French, it is loosely translated as ‘rough,’ as the Tartars were considered rough, violent, and savage.
(2) Steak Tartare – When tartare follows the word steak, this dish typically consists of raw ground beef or beef chopped finely and mixed with spices and topped with a raw egg and bits of raw onion.
History: Both tartar sauce and steak tartare came into English from French, but both terms originate with the Tartars associated with the Mongol invaders in medieval times. We do not know if those rough and ready folks were once reputed to eat raw meat or to relish a piquant dressing, but we do know that the tartar in both terms recognizes the Turkic peoples.
tarte tatin (tart tah-TAN) – A famous French upside-down apple tart made by covering the bottom of a shallow baking dish with butter and sugar, then apples and finally a pastry crust. While baking the sugar and butter create a delicious caramel that becomes the topping when the tart is inverted onto a serving plate. There is one rule for eating Tarte Tatin, which is scrupulously observed. It must be served warm, so the cream melts on contact. To the French, a room temperature Tarte Tatin isn’t worth the pan it was baked in.
History: Two French sisters, Carolina and Stephine Tatin, created the tart. The sisters lived in Lamotte-Beuvron, a small rural town in the Loire Valley, owned and ran the hotel called “l’Hotel TATIN” in the late 1800s. The elder sister, Stephanie, dealt with the kitchen. She was a particularly fine cook but was not the brightest of people. Her specialty was an apple tart, served perfectly crusty, caramelized and which melted in the mouth. One day during the hunting season, during the midday scramble, Stephanie placed her tart in the oven the wrong way round. The pastry and apples were upside-down but, nevertheless, she served this strange dessert without giving it time to cool. The French call this dessert “tarte des demoiselles Tatin – the tart of two unmarried women named Tatin.”
tasso (TAH-soh) – Tasso is yet another example of the Cajun and Creole desire for unique flavor in a recipe. Tasso is a dried smoked product that is seasoned with cayenne pepper, garlic and salt and heavily smoked. The word tasso is believed to have come from the Spanish work “tasajo” which is dried, cured beef. Although this delicacy is often thinly sliced and eaten alone, it is primarily used as a pungent seasoning for vegetables, gumbos, and soups. Today in South Louisiana, tasso is becoming a popular seasoning for new and creative dishes. It has also gained wide acclaim as a hors d’oeuvre served with dipping sauces or fruit glazes.
tea (tee) – True tea, also known as traditional or China tea, comes from one plant, a camellia-like bush native to Asia. Listed below are some of the more common teas:
Black tea – The most common form of tea worldwide. It is prepared from green tea leaves which have been allowed to oxidize or ferment in order to form a reddish brew.
Darjeeling tea – Tea grown in the Darjeeling region, a mountainous area around the Himalayas of India. These (generally black) teas are well known for their crisp astringency.
Earl Grey tea – Unfermented, dried tea, more commonly found in China and Japan.
Jasmine tea – Black tea scented with jasmine flowers. It is typically made with green Pouchong teas as the base.
Oolong tea – A form of tea characterized by lighter brews and larger leaf styles. This tea is typically understood as a lightly fermented tea, between green and black tea.
Orange pekoe tea – Referring to the size of leaf, not quality of flavor, this term indicates a larger-size grade of whole leaf teas.
tempeh (tehm-pay) – Another product of soybean fermentation, tempeh is usually sold frozen or refrigerated and needs to be cooked before eating. Steam or simmer it in water for about twenty minutes before using in recipes. You can skip this step if you add tempeh to long-cooking stews or soups. Tempeh has a firm texture and a flavor similar to mushrooms. It can be sliced or cubed and used in sandwiches, on kabobs, in stews and chilis, or added to stir-frys, and casseroles.
(1) To slowly bring up the temperature of a cold or room temperature ingredient by adding small amounts of a hot or boiling liquid. Adding the hot liquid gradually prevents the cool ingredient (such as eggs) from cooking or setting. The tempered mixture can then be added back to hot liquid for further cooking. This process is used most in making pastry cream and the like.
(2) To bring chocolate to a state in which it has snap, shine, and no streaks. Commercially available chocolate is already tempered but this condition changes when it is melted. Tempering is often done when the chocolate will be used for candy making or decorations. Chocolate must be tempered because it contains cocoa butter, a fat that forms crystals after chocolate is melted and cooled. Dull gray streaks form and are called “bloom.” The classic tempering method is to melt chocolate until it is totally without lumps. One third of the chocolate is then poured onto a marble slab, and then spread and worked back and forth with a metal spatula until it becomes thick and reaches a temperature of about 80 degrees F. The thickened chocolate is then added back to the remaining 2/3 melted chocolate and stirred. The process is repeated until the entire mixture reaches 88 to 92 degrees F. for semisweet chocolate, 84 to 87 degrees F. for milk or white chocolate.
tempura (tem-pura) – A Japanese method of preparing deep-fried foods. To prepare tempura, raw foods (seafood or fresh vegetables) are all cut up and then dipped in a batter made of egg yolks, flour, oil and water. They are then dropped into boiling oil until brown.
History: It is thought that Saint Francis Xavier introduced this style of cooking to the Orient in the 16th century. He and his retinue of monks subsisted on these fritters while observing the Church’s fast days when eating meat was strictly forbidden.
Teppanyaki – Teppanyaki is a Japanese term for grilling meats and poultry. Grilled meats are very popular in Japan, and are found at many street vendors and restaurants. This style is familiar to United States diners (typified by the Benihana restaurant chain) that was invented to take advantage of the tourist trade in Japan. It combined traditional grilling with western beef cuts to create “Japanese steak house”. Diners sit around a large metal griddle to watch an entertaining chef chop, flip, and cook beef, chicken, shrimp, and vegetables served with a soy sauce-citrus juice sauce (ponzu).
Tex-Mex – The cultural blending of Southern Texas and Northern Mexico cuisine.
Texas Toast – Texas toast, as it is most often called, is toast served with lunch or dinner and usually larger in size and density then regular toast. Of course this is served in Texas!
Thousand Island Dressing – It is made from bits of green olives, peppers, pickles, onions, hard-boiled eggs and other finely chopped ingredients.
History: To learn about the history of Thousand Island Dressing, check out History of Salad and Salad Dressings.
thyme (TIME) – Thyme is considered by many herbalists as the very nearly perfect useful herb. There is believed to be about 100 species of thyme. All thymes are wonderfully aromatic. The Persians once nibbled fresh thyme as an appetizer. Some ancients Greeks thought thyme gave person courage.
tian(TYAHN) – A French word describing a shallow, earthenware casserole, as well as the food that it contains. A tian can be any of various dishes, but originally referred to a Provencal dish of gratined mixed vegetables.
timbale (TIHM-bubl) – A high-sided, drum-shaped mold that can taper toward the bottom. The food baked in the mold is usually a custard-based dish. It is un-molded before serving.
tiramisu (teara-mi-SUE) – In Italian, tiramisu means, “pick me up.” It is a popular Italian dessert, which combines layers of rum-soaked lady fingers (delicate cookies), zabaglione, (Italian custard), mascarpone cheese, and chocolate. It is also known as Tuscan Trifle. This is a simple dessert that is easy to make and doesn’t need to be cooked.
History: To learn about the history of Tiramisu, check out History of Cakes.
tisane (tih-ZAN) – Means a herbal tea in Europe. It has come to mean any drink made by infusing parts of an herb or a plant with boiling water. For thousands of years, herbs have been appreciated for their curative powers as an elixir and tonic. Mint, chamomile, ginseng, and rose hips are some of the more familiar plants used in making herbal teas in Europe.
toad-in-the-hole – A British dish consisting of a Yorkshire Pudding batter and cooked link sausages. When baked, the batter puffs up around the sausage. The best English sausages to use for this dish are Lincoln or Cumberland sausages.
History: The dish probably dates back to the 18th century. Batter puddings first appeared on the scene in the early 18th century as ovens became more prevalent (as opposed to simply cooking over an open fire). The best known today is Yorkshire pudding, but there are many variations on the theme. The first reference to sausages cooked in a baking tin with batter poured around them appears in The Diary of Joseph Turner (1754-1765). It was basically poor people’s food that depended on the quality of the sausages.
toast – (1) Bread that has been browned by a dry heat source. It is a French term, ultimately from a Latin words meant “to parch.”
(2) The drinking toast was first found around 1700, and the custom was said by writers at the time to be a recent one. It is “a person or thing in honor of whom people drink.” This term was originally used for a lady who was considered highly regarded. It was a figurative use of the “heat-browned bread” – so called because a woman so honored was said to give flavor to the drink comparable to that given to the toast.
toast points – Toasted bread slices, with crust cut off, cut into four diagonal (triangle) pieces.
toffee, toffy – A hard, chewy candy made by cooking sugar (brown sugar or molasses), water, and butter together. It is then pulled so that it becomes glossy, and then spread out on a well-buttered pan to thicken. It is then cut into portions. Toffee or toffy is the modern British name for the candy called taffy in the United States. The British version is cooked longer and is harder than America’s version.
In America, Taffy making is a social event and should not be made alone unless you’re a professional. Taffy brings two people together (husband and wife’s, parents and kids, friends, etc.) in a way no other candy can. It would be a tragedy to make taffy solo.
History: Perhaps the word is a corruption of the word “tafia” which is a West Indies rum distilled from molasses. Tafia is a cheaper version of rum. Using this theory, the candy would have been made from the syrup skimmed off the liquor during distillation.
tofu (TOH-foo) – Made from soybean curd, tofu is rich in high-grade protein. It is a cheese-like food made by curdling fresh soy milk. The curds are pressed into cakes and textures vary from soft to firm depending on how much water is extracted during processing. It also has no cholesterol and is easily digestible. Tofu varieties include “cotton” and “silk,” firm and soft, respectively. Tofu is stored in water and should be thoroughly drained just before cooking. Changing the water daily will keep it fresh longer. In addition to being served chilled, tofu appears in soups, nabe (refers to a variety of communal one-pot meals), and simmered, and deep-fried dishes. Tofu was first made in China approximately 2000 years ago. Tofu can be used in place of sour cream, yogurt, or mayonnaise in dips, spreads, and salad dressings . It can also be used as a meat extender by mixing it with ground meat before shaping into loaves or patties.
tomatillo (TOM-a-tea-yo) – They are also called tomate verde in Mexico, which means, “green tomato” and they are considered a staple in Mexican cooking. It now grows everywhere in the Western Hemisphere and is common in Texas gardens. This compact fruit, about the size of a cherry tomato, grows to maturity inside of a husk. They can range in size from about an inch in diameter to the size of apricots. They are covered by a papery husk, which may range from the pale green color of the fruit itself to a light grocery-bag brown. The husks are inedible and should be removed before use.
tomato (tuh-MAY-toh; tuh-MAH-toh) – One of the best things about summer is biting into a sweet, vine-ripened tomato.
At the beginning, the tomato plant was not accepted so readily, as it was believed to be poisonous-so much so that in 1820 the state of New York passed a law banning the consumption of tomatoes. This belief was proven to be false by Mr. Robert Gibbon Johnson who took a bagful of tomatoes in a courtroom in Salem, New Jersey and ate the entire bagful before an incredulous public. Some people, believing tomatoes to be poisonous, fully expected him to flop over dead and it is reported some older ladies became incontinent and young women fainted from the tension.
Debate has centered over whether the tomato is a vegetable or a fruit. In 1887, the question went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court in Nix vs. Hedden. The real issue was money and protection for American growers; if tomatoes were vegetables, they could be taxed when imported under the Tariff Act of 1883. It was decided that tomatoes are fruits, but the courts ruled on the side of American farmers. Botanically speaking, tomatoes are the fruit of a vine, like cucumbers, squashes, beans, and peas. But in the common language of the people, all these are vegetables, which are grown in backyard gardens and are usually served with dinner and not, like fruits, as dessert. To learn about Tomatoes, check out Linda Stradley’s web page on Tomatoes.
History: It is believed that tomatoes were introduced from South America to Europe in the 1500s. The Aztecs, according to a contemporary account, mixed tomatoes with chilies and ground squash seeds, a combination that sounds a lot like the world’s first recipe for salsa. Tomatoes arrived in Europe from central and northern America. Pietro Andrea Mattioli who gives an accurate description and calls them pomi d’oro dates the first mention of tomatoes in Italy 1544.
torte (tohrt) – Torte is the German word for “cake.” It is a cake that uses groundnuts as the predominant dry ingredient in place of most or sometimes all of the flour. Although they may be single layered, tortes are often sliced into several layers and filled with whipped cream, jam, or butter cream. Tortes make a great dessert for the Jewish holiday of Passover, when flour can not be used.
tortellini (tohr-tl-Eennee) – A filled pasta that has been twisted to form a ring usually two inches in diameter. They are stuffed with meat, vegetables, or most commonly, cheese.
tortilla (tore-TEE-yu) – (1) In Spain it is an omelet; (2) In Tex-Mex cooking, it is a round, unleavened thin bread made of either corn flour or wheat flour. Tortillas in Mexico almost always mean corn tortillas.
History: Check out History of Tortillas and Tacos.
tournedos (TOOR-nih-doh) – It is a beef steak cut from the tenderloin, measuring 3/4-inch to 1-inch thick and 2-inches to 2 1/2 -inches in diameter. Because they tend to be very lean, tournedos are often wrapped in pork fat or bacon prior to grilling or broiling. The classic way to serve them is on fried bread rounds and topped with a mushroom sauce.
treacle (TREE-kuhl) – A term used in Great Britian for the syrupy by-product created during sugar refining. Treacle is the sticky fluid remaining after sugar cane has been processed. In many recipes molasses can be substituted if treacle is unavailable.
black treacle – It is a very dark-hues residue created during the process of sugar refining. This is a British product that is similar but somewhat more bitter tasting than molasses.
light treacle – It contains fewer imputities than the dark variety and has a lighter flavor. It is also called golden syrup.
trattoria – Traditionally, a trattoria in Italy, is considered one notch below a “ristorante” in price and fanciness of surroundings (an informal atmosphere). A trattoria is sometimes considered “holes-in-the wall.”
Tres Leches Cake – Also called Three-Milk Cake. A dense, moist cake topped with a cloud of vanilla whipped cream. What makes it unusual is that after baked, it is soaked in a mixture of three different milk products: evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, and whole milk or heavy cream, hence the name Tres Leches. The three milks, when combined, create just the right sweetness, density and “mouth feel” for a rich cake, making it moist but not mushy.
History: To learn about the history of Tres Leches Cake, check out History of Cakes.
trifle (TRI-fuhl) – It is a cake well soaked with sherry and served with boiled custard poured over it. The English call this cake a Tipsy Cake or Pudding and Tipsy Hedgehog. The word “trifle” comes from the Old French “trufle,” and literally means something whimsical or of little consequence.
History: To learn about the history of Trifle, check out History of Cakes.
treviso (Radicchio di Treviso or Treviso radicchio) – Sometimes known as Radicchio or Radicchio Rosso as it is a variety of radicchio. Treviso is a longer, thinner, and looser version of the tight-headed radicchio. Its elongated leaves are similar to romaine lettuce or overgrown Belgian endive. It is also a milder version of radicchio and is slightly bitter, yet has a nutty flavor which mellows when grilled, roasted, or slow cooked. Trevisco appears in the markets in late November (it’s tastiest after the frosts begin).
History: Radicchio di Treviso was engineered by a Belgian named Francesco Van Den Borre who lived in Italy and cared for the gardens of the villas in the Veneto. He applied the imbianchiamento techniques (which uses scalding spring water to transform the color of the leaves) to radicchio plants to create white-veins in the red leaves, hence the name “radicchio rose di Treviso.”
trinity – Trinity is a Louisiana Cajon/Creole seasoning trio which is an equal combination of onion, bell pepper, and celery.
tripe – Tripe refers to the lining of an animal’s stomach.
tri-tip roast – It is a Californian term. The meat for this cut is taken from the middle meat across the back, just ahead of the hindquarters. Tri-tip roasts will vary from 1 1/2 to 2 pounds and are about two inches thick. While tri-tip is pretty much unknown east of California, asking for the “bottom sirloin butt” would tell a butcher what you were looking for, even if he couldn’t deliver it. It also is called “triangular” roast because of its shape.
History: Tri-tip became popular in the 1950s in Santa Maria, California, when it was known as “Santa Maria tri-tip,” appropriate because of its triangular shape, not to mention the site of its discovery. Apparently that is any number of claimants in Santa Maria for the title of Discoverer of Tri-tip.
truffle (TRUHF-uhl) –
(1) A chocolate truffle is a confection made with chocolate, butter or cream, and other flavorings, such as liquers or coffee, rolled into a ball and often coated with cocoa, nuts, or more chocolate. They were named “truffles” because the finished candy somewhat resembled the famous fungus.
(2) The truffle is a fungus that grows from 3 to 12 inches underground near the roots of trees (usually oak, but also chestnut, hazel, and beech), never beyond the range of the branches. It is a tuber of unusual flavor and aroma, and is mainly round in shape, arrive in various sizes and are black, brown, white, and sometimes gray in color. There are 70 varieties of truffles, 32 of which are found in Europe. It is savored in Italian and French cookery, and due to its scarcity, draws a very high price. They are highly prized for their exceptional flavors.
The high price of truffles, is due to the methodically slow and labor intensive harvesting process which involves the use of specially trained animals to route out the hard to find fungus. As truffles grow under the earth, they are located using the sensitive noses of specially trained dogs, which carefully dig them up with their paws. These dogs are referred as “tabui”, which strangely enough means “bastards”.
black truffle – These are the truffles of Perigord, often called black diamonds. They are the black diamonds” of French cuisine. They are the most revered truffle and have a black flesh with a network of white veins inside. The black truffle requires cooking to allow the flavors to be fully achieved. They are in season from January to March.
white truffle – These are the truffles of Piedmont, often called autumn truffles or fruit of the woods. The white truffle is best when shaved directly on the dish before eating. Their season is from October to December.
Oregon truffles – To learn about the Oregon Truffles, check out Linda Stradley’s web page on Oregon Truffles.
History: A Piemontese chef by the name of Giacomo Morra is credited with having been first to put truffles on the table.
truffle oil – Truffle oil is extra-virgin olive oil that is infused with the essence of gourmet mushrooms. It is the most economical way to enjoy the flavor of truffles; a drop or two of this oil will enhance sauces, pastas, and salads. To learn more about Truffle Oil, check out Linda Stradley’s web page on Truffle Oil.
truss – To secure food (usually poultry or game) with string, pins, or skewers so that it maintains a compact shape during cooking. Trussing allows for easier basting during cooking.
tube pan – It is a round pan with deep sides and a hollow center tube. Used for baking cakes, especially angel food cake and sponge cake. The tube promotes even baking for the center of the cake.
tuile (TWEEl) – French for “tile.” A tuile is a thin, crisp cookie that is placed over a rounded object (like a rolling pin or a mold) while still hot from the oven. Once cooled and stiff, the cookie resembles a curved roof tile. The classic tuile is made with crushed almonds but the cookie can also be flavored with orange, lemon, vanilla or other nuts. Tuiles belong to a category of small fancy cookies, pastries, or confections called “petits fours.”
tuna – (1) Tuna is a member of the mackerel family and can reach a length of 5 to 6 feet and weight anywhere from 20 to as high as 1,500 pounds. They travel in schools and spend the winter at the bottom of the ocean. When spring comes, they rise to the surface (near the shore where there is warmer water to spawn). The four varieties of tuna used for canning are the albacore tuna, the yellow fin, the blue fin, and the striped tuna. They vary in color, and the flesh may be white, pink, or darkish tan.
(2) Refers to a refreshing fruit, which grows on Nopal Cactus (Opuntia). In some parts of the world, they are called prickly pear fruit or cactus pears. They are about the size of a large kiwi fruit and are usually pale green or crimson red in color. The large number of seeds inside is edible. You see them in parts of the United States, Greece, India and Australia.
Turbinado sugar – Turbinado sugar is a form of raw sugar which has been steamed-cleaned. It has larger grains than granulated sugar. It has a molasses flavor and the color is lighter than brown sugar.
Turducken – It is a 15-16 pound deboned turkey (except for wing bones and drumsticks), a fully hand deboned duck, and a fully hand deboned chicken, all rolled into one and stuffed with lots of delicious stuffing (three kinds of stuffing are layered between the three kinds of meat). This regional delight has become one of the latest food fads. From the outside it looks like a turkey, but when you cut through it, you see a series of rings making up the three birds and stuffing. Learn how to prepare and cook a Turducken,