jaccart - To
inject a product, usually beef, with tiny needles, in order to tenderize it.
jalapeno pepper (hal-la-PAY-nyo)
- Named after Jalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico, these smooth, dark
green (scarlet red when ripe) have a rounded tip and are about 2 inches long
and 3/4 to 1 inch in diameter. Although not as hot as other chile peppers,
most people love the flavor this pepper has. Heat range is 3-6, depending on
the variety. Besides their flavor, jalapenos are quite popular because
they're so easily seeded (the seeds and veins are extremely hot). They're
available fresh and canned and are used in a variety of sauces, sometimes
stuffed with cheese, fish or meat, and in a multitude of dishes. In their
dried form they are known as chipotles. Pickled, it is called cscabeche.
jambalaya (juhm-buh-LI-yah) -
Jambalaya is a rich dish, which varies widely from cook to cook, but usually
contains rice. It is said that Louisiana chefs "sweep up the kitchen" and
toss just about everything into the pot for this rice dish that is highly
seasoned and flavored with any combination of beef, pork, fowl, smoked
sausage, ham, or seafood, as well as celery, green peppers and often
tomatoes. Jambalaya, is the dish most obviously associated with the brief
period of Spanish domination in New Orleans. Celestine Eustis, writing at
the turn of the twentieth century, refers to it as a "Spanish Creole dish."
It is now considered the hallmark of Cajun cuisine.
Learn about the History of
jambon (zham-BOHN) - It is the
French word for "ham" which consists of the hind leg of the pig, separated
from the carcass at about the second joint of the vertebrae.
jambon au madere - Ham steaks prepared with Madeira wine
jambon cru - Raw ham.
jambon froid - Cold or chilled ham.
jambon jambon fume - Smoked ham.
jambonneau (zhan-bun-NO) - A
French cut of the pork carcass that consists of a portion of the foreleg or
a knuckle from the foreleg or hind leg that is cured and pickled or salted.
jelly bean - Historians seem to
think that jelly beans were introduced between 1896 and 1905. It is believed
the jelly center is a descendent of a Mid-Eastern confection known as
Turkish Delight that dates back to Biblical times. The shell coating is an
offspring of a process called panning, first invented in 17th century France
to make Jordan Almonds. The panning process, while done primarily by machine
today, has remained essentially the same for the last 300 years. It wasn't
until the 1930's that jelly beans became a part of Easter traditions.
Jelly beans quickly earned a place among the
many glass jars of "penny candy" in general stores where they were sold by
weight and taken home in paper bags. It wasn't until the 1930's, however,
that jelly beans became a part of Easter traditions.
jerk - A term used for an island
style of barbecue that includes marinating the meat in a green pesto-like
mixture of herbs, spices, and very hot peppers.
jerk seasoning - A spicy
Jamaican seasoning used to marinate fish, pork, chicken, and beef. The mix
includes a blend of chiles, allspice, thyme, and lime juice or rum. Some
jerk mixtures (jerk rub) are thick and are rubbed over meats before cooking.
Other blends have more liquid added so that they can be used for marinating
and basting. The slaves used this method to preserve their meat.
Jerusalem artichoke - It
resembles the globe artichoke in flavor but is actually a member of the
sunflower family. See artichoke.
jicama (hic-a-ma) - It is also
known as the Mexican potato. Jicama is a very firm, bulbous root vegetable
that is brown on the outside with pearly white meat. It can be enjoyed
either raw of cooked. It is slightly sweet to taste and it is very crunchy
(it will remain so even after cooking). Great in salads and for using in
Jo-Jo Potatoes - Potatoes cut
into thick wedges then seasoned (sometimes breaded) and deep-fried. Often
served with broasted chicken.
Johnny Cake – Also called Jonny
Cake. Johnny Cakes are the New England equivalent of the tortilla. The
simplest recipes call for nothing but corn meal, boiling water, and a little
salt. The batter should be fairly thin so that when fried on a hot griddle,
the batter spreads out no more than a quarter of an inch thick.
The origin of the name is something of a mystery and probably has nothing to
do the name John. They also were called Journey Cakes because they could be
carried on long trips in the traveler’s saddlebags and baked along the way.
There is some thought that they were originally called Shawnee Cake and the
colonist slurred the words into Johnny Cake. Modern historians have also
found that the word joniken, an American Indian word meaning corn cake could
possible be the origin of the name. The settlers of New England learned how
to make Johnny Cakes from the local Putexet Indians, who showed the starving
Pilgrims how to grind and use corn for eating.