quadriller – To mark the surface of grilled or broiled food with a crisscross pattern of lines. The scorings are produced by contact with very hot single grill bars, which brown the surface of the food. Very hot skewers may also be used to mark the surface.
Quark cheese (qwark) – Quark cheese is a soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavor of sour cream. Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to top baked potatoes and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes including cheesecakes, dips, salads, and sauces. By the same token, sour cream can be used as a substitute if quark is unavailable.
quatre epices (KAH-tray-PEES) – In French it means “four spices.” It is a mixture of ground spices usually consisting of pepper, nutmeg, ginger, and cloves. Since there is no standard mixture for quatre epices, the mixture will vary with each chef.
quiche (keesh) – The word is from the German word Khen, meaning cake. It is an open-faced pie or tart having an egg filling and a variety of other ingredients. Bread dough was traditionally used, but in modern times, pie pastry and occasionally puff pastry is commonly substituted. Today, one can find many varieties of quiche, from the original quiche Lorraine, to ones with broccoli, mushrooms, ham and/or seafood (primarily shellfish). Quiche can be served as an entr, for lunch, breakfast or an evening snack.
History: Quiche originated in Germany, in the medieval kingdom of Lothringen, which was ruled by the Germans. The French later changed the name from Lothringen and to Lorraine. Quiche became popular in England after World War II, and in the United Sates during the 1950’s.
Quiche Lorraine – The most popular of all quiches in which bacon strips are arranged in the bottom of the pastry shell together with Gruyere cheese. The shell is then filled with the egg mixture and baked.
quick bread – As the name implies, quick breads can be made quickly and easily. Because the leavening agent is either baking powder, baking soda, or steam, there is no rising time required. A baked quick bread will generally have a gently rounded top that is slightly bumpy.
History: Quick breads (chemically leavened) were not developed until the end of the 18th century. This took place in America, where pearlash was discovered. Pearlash is a refined form of potash, and it produces carbon dioxide gas in dough. Baking powder was not developed commercially until 1857 (phosphate baking powder).
quinoa (kEEN-wah) – Quinoa was once the staple food of the Incas and was known as “the mother grain” in ancient times. It has just started to catch on in the U.S. It is a very small ivory-colored grain, which you can purchase in grain and flour forms. It cooks like rice, but cooks in half the time and expands to four times its size. The flavor is delicate and has been compared to couscous with a slightly bitter aftertaste. To remove the bitter taste, you need only to rinse the quinoa in a sieve before cooking. Many chefs are using it as an interesting side dish. Sometimes it is called a Super food because it is a good source of iron, plant protein, potassium, magnesium and lysine. Given the basically bland taste of quinoa, rice and couscous are often very good substitutes.